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You can choose option 1 or option 2 to write about

Text books

Burger, The Shaping of Western Civilization vol. 2,

REVEL, Levack et al. The West, Encounters and Transformations vol. 2

AT LEAST 1200 words (not including works cited). This essay will be evaluated by, a site that checks for plagiarism.

4. You may ONLY use my powerpoints, the primary sources for this course, or a course textbook as sources for the essay. You do not need to cite the information in my powerpoints, but any other information must be appropriately cited using either MLA formatting or footnotes. You may cite the textbook using the chapter and section number.

1) In the first half of class I spent a lot of time talking about the “nested hierarchies” (religious, cosmic, political, scientific, etc…) that structured medieval society and how those were challenged and ultimately dismantled in the early modern period. In an essay explain how those hierarchies worked, give specific examples of individuals and ideas that challenged these hierarchies, and explain what happened to them between 1500 and 1800. Feel free to use images from my powerpoints if and where applicable.


2) Explain the nested hierarchies from question one, but instead of looking at how they were challenged, examine how they held on, even though they were challenged. Be sure to use specific examples. Each powerpoint has an example of a situation where older practices and beliefs remained.