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important role in marketing

The consumer behaviour plays an important role in marketing of fast moving consumer goods.This
behaviour is effected by various factors.In the present era of globalisation needs and wants of consumers
changes with time.The fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector contributes a lot to the growth of
India’s GDP.Therefore it is neccesary to identify the changes in consumer buying behaviour towards FMCG
products.The motive of this paper is to identify the factors affecting consumer buying behviour towards
FMCG products and finally effecting their decision making process.The data for this study has been
collected through questionnaire and findings have been theoretically presented.The paper reveals that
consumer behaviour is largely effected by place,product,price,promotion,physiological and pshycological
factors.However effect of these factors also differ from product to product.
Key words : Fast Moving Consumer Goods,Cosumer Behaviour ,Market strategy ,Factors influencing
I : Introduction
Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) goods are
popularly named as consumer packaged goods.
Items in this category include all consumables
(other than groceries/pulses) people buy at regular
intervals. The most common in the list are toilet
soaps, detergents, shampoos, toothpaste, shaving
products, shoe polish, packaged foodstuff, and
household accessories and extends to certain
electronic goods. These items are meant for daily
of frequent consumption and have a high return.
The Fast Moving Consumer Goods Industry
includes food and non-food everyday consumer
products. They are usually purchased as an
outcome of small-scale consumer decision so they
are heavily supported (advertising, promotion) by
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1169
the manufacturers. Typical purchasing of these
goods occurs at grocery stores, supermarkets,
hypermarkets etc. The manufacturers are always
exploring new outlets and sales locations while
the traditional ret+ailers have introduced private
label brands to capture additional profit. Every
one of us uses fast moving consumer products
every day.
This business is based on building powerful
brands and achieving a high level of
distribution. Global power brands are the choice
of multinational companies. Local brands can
compliment these. Achieving superior distribution
thorough a powerful supply chain and making
sure the products are available wherever someone
might want or need it. The FMCG Supply Chain
is the interrelated collection of processes and
associated resources It includes suppliers,
manufacturers, logistics service providers,
warehouses, distributors, wholesalers and all other
entities that lead up to delivery to the final
customer. Followed in the market through sales
force activity it can help gain a high level of
distribution. Market Research, consumer research,
segmentation and product positioning is the
compulsory homework of any company in this
industry. Advertising and promotions, POS
activities drive brand awareness, trial, purchase
and is a core activity. While TV advertising is
most common new solutions are also used
including internet advertisements. High budgets,
creativity and detailed planning are needed.
II: Objectives of the study
1. To understand the concept of FMCG
2. To know and understand the scope of
maketing FMCG products in India.
3. To identify the factors affecting consumer
buying behaviour and consumer decision
making process.
4. To conclude and suggest stratigies for
effewctive marketing of FMCG products.
III: Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)
Fast Moving consumer goods are those goods that
are consumed every day by the average consumer
and are replaced or fully used up over a short
period of days, weeks, or months, and within one
The Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), also
known as Consumer Packaged Goods (CPG), is
products that have a quick turnover and relatively
low cost. Though the absolute profit made on
FMCG products is relatively small, they generally
sell in large numbers and so the cumulative profit
on such products can be large.
Fast moving consumer goods have a short shelf
life, either as a result of high consumer demand or
because the product deteriorates rapidly. Some
Fast moving consumer goods – such as meat,
fruits and vegetables, dairy products and baked
goods – are highly perishable. Other goods such
as alcohol, toiletries, pre-packaged foods, soft
drinks and cleaning products have high turnover
Fast moving consumer goods are products that
have a quick shelf turnover, at relatively low cost
and don’t require a lot of thought, time and
financial investment to purchase. The margin of
profit on every individual Fast moving consumer
goods product is less. However the huge number
of goods sold is what makes the difference. Hence
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1170
profit in Fast moving consumer goods always
translates to number of goods sold.
Fast Moving Consumer Goods is a classification
that refers to a wide range of frequently purchased
consumer products. Examples of FMCG generally
include a wide range of frequently purchased
consumer products such as toiletries, soap,
cosmetics, teeth cleaning products, shaving
products and detergents, as well as other nondurables such as glassware, bulbs, batteries, paper
products and plastic goods. FMCG may also
include pharmaceuticals, consumer electronics,
packaged food products and drinks, although these
are often categorized separately.
Three of the largest and best known examples of
Fast Moving Consumer Goods companies are
Nestlé, Unilever and Procter & Gamble. Examples
of FMCGs are soft drinks, tissue paper, and
chocolate bars. Examples of FMCG brands are
Coca-Cola, Kleenex, Pepsi and Believe
Toiletries, Beauty Products, Home Cosmetics,
Packaged Food, Soft Drinks Household
accessories are some of the best known examples
of Fast Moving Consumer Goods
A subset of FMCGs are Fast Moving Consumer
Electronics which contain innovative electronic
products such as mobile phones, MP3 players,
digital cameras, GPS Systems, cell phones and
Laptops which are replaced more frequently than
other electronic products mainly due to
technology changes.
White goods in FMCG refer to large household
electronic items such as refrigerators. Smaller
items, TV sets, stereo systems etc. are sometimes
termed Brown goods.
Unlike other economy sectors, FMCG share float
in a steady manner irrespective of global market
dip, because they generally satisfy rather
fundamental – as opposed to luxurious – needs.
IV: Growth of FMCG in India
The Indian FMCG sector with a market size of
US$14.8 billion is the fourth largest sector in the
economy. The FMCG market is set to double from
USD 14.7 billion in 2011-12 to USD 30 billion in
2013. FMCG sector will witness more than 60 per
cent growth in rural and semi-urban India by
2014. Indian consumer goods market is expected
to reach $400 billion by 2014.Hair care,
household care, male grooming, female hygiene,
and the chocolates and confectionery categories
are estimated to be the fastest growing segments.
At present, urban India accounts for 66% of total
FMCG consumption, with rural India accounting
for the remaining 34%. However, rural India
accounts for more than 40% consumption in major
FMCG categories such as personal care, fabric
care, and hot beverages. In urban areas, home and
personal care category, including skin care,
household care and feminine hygiene, will keep
growing at relatively attractive rates. Within the
foods segment, it is estimated that processed
foods, bakery, and dairy are long-term growth
categories in both rural and urban areas. The
growing incline of rural and semi-urban folks for
FMCG products will be mainly responsible for the
growth in this sector, as manufacturers will have
to deepen their concentration for higher sales
Major Players in this sector include Hindustan
Unilever Ltd., ITC (Indian Tobacco Company),
and Nestlé India, GCMMF (AMUL), Dabur India,
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1171
Asian Paints (India), Cadbury India, Britannia
Industries, Procter & Gamble Hygiene and Health
Care, Marico Industries, Nirma, Coca-Cola, Pepsi
and others. As per the analysis by ASSOCHAM,
Companies Hindustan Unilever Ltd, Dabur India
originates half of their sales from rural India.
While Colgate Palmolive India and Marico
constitutes nearly 37% respectively, however
Nestle India Ltd and GSK Consumer drive 25 per
cent of sales from rural India.
A rapid urbanization, increase in demands,
presence of large number of young population, a
large number of opportunities is available in the
FMCG sector. The Finance Minister has proposed
to introduce an integrated Goods and Service Tax
by April 2014.This is an exceptionally good move
because the growth of consumption, production,
and employment is directly proportionate to
reduction in indirect taxes which constitute no less
than 35% of the total cost of consumer products –
the highest in Asia. The bottom line is that Indian
market is changing rapidly and is showing
unprecedented consumer business opportunity. It
is in this perspective we have decided to conduct a
study of consumer Behaviour and Buying
Decisions in respect of select FMCG products.
V: Characteristics of FMCG in India
 Branding: Creating strong brands is
important for FMCG companies and they
devote considerable money and effort in
developing bands. With differentiation on
functional attributes being difficult to
achieve in this competitive market,
branding results in consumer loyalty and
sales growth.
 Distribution Network: Given the
fragmented nature of the Indian retailing
industry and the problems of
infrastructure, FMCG companies need to
develop extensive distribution networks to
achieve a high level of penetration in both
the urban and rural markets. Once they are
able to create a strong distribution
network, it gives them significant
advantages over their competitors.
 Contract Manufacturing: As FMCG
companies concentrate on brand building,
product development and creating
distribution networks, they are at the same
time outsourcing their production
requirements to third party manufacturers.
Moreover, with several items reserved for
the small scale industry and with these SSI
units enjoying tax incentives, the contract
manufacturing route has grown in
importance and popularity.
 Large Unorganized Sector: The
unorganised sector has a presence in most
product categories of the FMCG sector.
Small companies from this sector have
used their location advantages and regional
presence to reach out to remote areas
where large consumer products have only
limited presence. Their low cost structure
also gives them an advantage.
VI: Factors affecting Consumer Buying
All of us are consumers. We consume things of
daily use; we also consume and buy these
products according to our needs, preferences and
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1172
buying power. These can be Consumable goods,
durable goods, speciality goods or, industrial
What we buy, how we buy, where and when we
buy, in how much quantity we buy depends on our
perception, self concept, social and cultural
background and our age and family cycle, our
attitudes, beliefs values, motivation, personality,
social class and many other factors that are both
internal and external to us. While buying, we also
consider whether to buy or not to buy and, from
which source or seller to buy. In some societies
there is a lot of affluence and, these societies can
afford to buy in greater quantities and at shorter
intervals. In poor societies, the consumer can
barely meet his barest needs. The marketer
therefore tries to understand the needs of different
consumers and having understood his different
behaviours which require an in-depth study of
their internal and external environment, they
formulate their plans for marketing.
Management is the youngest of sciences and
oldest of arts and consumer behaviour in
management is a very young discipline. Various
scholars and academicians concentrated on it at a
much later stage. It was during the 1950s, that
marketing concept developed, and thus the need to
study the behaviour of consumers was recognised.
Marketing starts with the needs of the customer
and ends with his satisfaction. When everything
revolves round the customer, then the study of
consumer behaviour becomes a necessity. It starts
with the buying of goods. Goods can be bought
individually, or in groups. Goods can be bought
under stress (to satisfy an immediate need), for
comfort and luxury in small quantities or in bulk.
For all this, exchange is required. This exchange
is usually between the seller and the buyer. It can
also be between consumers.
Consumer behaviour can be defined as the
decision-making process and physical activity
involved in acquiring, evaluating, using and
disposing of goods and services.
This definition clearly brings out that it is not just
the buying of goods/services that receives
attention in consumer behaviour but, the process
starts much before the goods have been acquired
or bought. A process of buying starts in the minds
of the consumer, which leads to the finding of
alternatives between products that can be acquired
with their relative advantages and disadvantages.
This leads to internal and external research. Then
follows a process of decision-making for purchase
and using the goods, and then the post purchase
behaviour which is also very important, because it
gives a clue to the marketers whether his product
has been a success or not.
To understand the likes and dislikes of the
consumer, extensive consumer research studies
are being conducted. These researches try to find
 What the consumer thinks of the company’s
products and those of its competitors?
 How can the product be improved in their opinion?
 How the customers use the product?
 What is the customer’s attitude towards the product
and its advertising?
 What is the role of the customer in his family?
Consumer behaviour is a complex, dynamic,
multidimensional process, and all marketing
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1173
decisions are based on assumptions about
consumer behaviour.
Marketing strategy is the game plan which the
firms must adhere to, in order to outdo the
competitor or the plans to achieve the desired
objective. In formulating the marketing strategy,
to sell the product effectively, cost-benefit
analysis must be undertaken. There can be many
benefits of a product, for example, for owning a
motor bike one can be looking for ease of
transportation, status, pleasure, comfort and
feeling of ownership. The cost is the amount of
money paid for the bike, the cost of maintenance,
gasoline, parking, risk of injury in case of an
accident, pollution and frustration such as traffic
jams. The difference between this total benefit and
total cost constitutes the customer value. The idea
is to provide superior customer value and this
requires the formulation of a marketing strategy.
The entire process consists of market analysis,
which leads to target market selection, and then to
the formulation of strategy by juggling the
product, price, promotion and distribution, so that
a total product (a set of entire characteristics) is
offered. The total product creates an image in the
mind of the consumer, who undergoes a decision
VII : Marketing Strategy and Consumer
(i) Marketing Analysis
(a) Consumer
(b) Company
(c) Competition
(d) Condition
(ii) Marketing Segmentation
(e) Identify product related needs
(f) Group customers with similar need sets
(g) Describe each group
(h) Select target market
(iii) Marketing Strategy
(I) Product
(j) Price
(k) Distribution
(l) Communication
(m) Service
(iv) Consumer Decision Process
(n) Problem recognition
(o) Information search—internal, external
(p) Alternative evaluation
(q) Purchase
(r) Use
(s) Evaluation
(v) Outcomes
(t) Customer satisfaction
(u) Sales
(v) Product/Brand image
Market analysis requires an understanding of the
4-Cs which are consumer, conditions, competitor
and the company. A study is undertaken to
provide superior customer value, which is the
main objective of the company. For providing
better customer value we should learn the needs of
the consumer, the offering of the company, vis-a-
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1174
vis its competitors and the environment which is
economic, physical, technological, etc.
(a) The Consumer
To understand the consumer; researches are made.
Sometimes motivational research becomes handy
to bring out hidden attitudes, uncover emotions
and feelings. Many firms send questionnaires to
customers to ask about their satisfaction, future
needs and ideas for a new product. On the basis of
the answers received, changes in the marketing
mix are made and advertising is also streamlined.
(b) The External Analysis (Company)
The external analysis may be done by the
feedbacks from the industry analyst and by
marketing researches. The internal analysis is
made by the firm’s financial conditions, the
quantum of the sales, force and other factors
within the company. The study of these factors
leads to a better understanding of the consumer
and his needs.
(c) The Competition
In the analysis of the market, a study of the
strengths and weaknesses of the competitors, their
strategies, their anticipated moves and their
reaction to the companies. Moves and plans is to
be made. The company after getting this
information reacts accordingly and changes its
marketing mix and the offering is made in a
manner which can out do the competitor. This is a
very difficult process and it is easier said than
done. To have correct information about the
competitors and to anticipate their further moves
is the job of the researcher.
(d) The Conditions
The conditions under which the firms are
operating has also to be seriously considered. The
factors to be studied are the economy, the physical
environment, the government regulations, the
technological developments, etc. These effect the
consumer needs, i.e. the deterioration of the
environment and its pollution may lead to the use
and innovation of safer products. People are
health conscious and are concerned with their
safety. Hence, in this case, safer products have a
better chance with the consumer. In case of
recession, the flow of money is restricted greatly.
This leads to the formulation of different
marketing strategies.
(ii) Market Segmentation
The market is divided into segments which are a
portion of a larger market whose needs are similar
and, they are homogeneous in themselves. Such
segments are identified with similar needs.
(a) Need Set
By need set, it is meant that there are products
which satisfy more than one need.
An automobile can fill the transportation needs,
status need, fun needs or time saving needs. So the
company tries to identify the need sets which its
product can fulfil. Then we try to identify the
groups who have similar needs, i.e. some people
need economical cars, others may go for luxury
(b) Demographic and Psychographic
These groups are identified and they are described
in terms of their demographic and psychographic
characteristics. The company finds out how and
when the product is purchased and consumed.
(c) Target Segment
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After all the above preliminary work is done, the
target customer group known as the target
segment is chosen, keeping in mind how the
company can provide superior customer value at a
profit. The segment which can best be served with
the company’s capabilities at a profit is chosen. It
has to be kept in mind that different target
segments require different marketing strategies
and, with the change in the environmental
conditions the market mix has to be adjusted
(iii)Marketing Strategy
Strategies are formulated to provide superior
customer value. In formulating market strategies,
the 4-ps are directed at the target market.
(a) Product
Product is anything that is offered to the consumer
which is tangible and can satisfy a need and has
some value.
(b) Price
Price is the amount of money one must pay to
obtain the right to use the product.
(c) Distribution (Place)
The goods can be distributed by many channels.
These could be retailers, wholesalers, agents or by
direct selling. Distribution outlets play an
important role in reaching the goods to the
consumer. They provide, time, place and
possession utilities. Some goods need to be
marketed through the channels or the middleman.
Others can be marketed directly by the company
to the actual consumer.
(d) Promotion
Promotion is the means of changing the attitudes
of the consumer, so that it becomes favourable
towards the company’s products. Various means
of promotion are advertising, personal selling,
sales promotion and publicity.
(e) Service
Service refers to auxiliary service that enhances
the value of the product or the service. For
instance, while buying a car. Free services are
provided over a certain period of time. Check-ups
are free and maintenance is also covered on the
charge of an adequate amount along with the
product purchased. These auxiliary services are
provided at a cost with money. These provide
value to the product or the customer. These
services give an advantage to the customer and he
is free from the botheration of occasional
checkups or risk. The risk is considerably reduced
and, the customer derives satisfaction with his
decision to purchase.
(iv) Consumer Decision Process
The decision-making process consists of a series
of steps which the consumer undergoes. First of
all, the decision is made to solve a problem of any
kind. This may be the problem of creating a cool
atmosphere in your home. For this, information
search is carried out, to find how the cool
atmosphere can be provided, e.g. by an airconditioner or, by a water-cooler. This leads to the
evaluation of alternatives and a cost benefitanalysis is made to decide which product and
brand image will be suitable, and can take care of
the problem suitably and adequately. Thereafter
the purchase is made and the product is used by
the consumer.
VIII : Disciplines Involved in the Study of
Consumer Behaviour
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1176
Consumer behavior was a relatively new field of
study during the second half of the 1960s without
a history or research of its own. It is in fact a
subset of human behavior and it is often difficult
to draw a distinct line between consumer-related
behavior and other aspects of human behavior.
The discipline of consumer behavior has
borrowed heavily from concepts developed in
other disciplines of study such as psychology,
sociology, social psychology, cultural
anthropology and economics.
(i) Psychology is the study of the individual,
which includes motivation, perception,
attitudes, and personality and learning
theories. All these factors are critical to
an understanding of consumer
behavior and help us to comprehend
consumption related needs of
individuals, their actions and responses
to different promotional messages and
products and the way their experiences
and personality characteristics
influence product choices.
(ii) Sociology is the study of groups. When
individuals form groups, their actions
are sometimes quite different from the
actions of those very individuals when
they are operating alone. The
influences of group memberships,
family and social class of consumer
behavior are important for the study of
consumer behavior.
(iii)Social psychology is a combination of
sociology and psychology and studies
how an individual operates in a group.
It also studies how those whose
opinions they respect such as peers,
reference groups, their families and
opinion leaders influence individuals
in their consumption behavior.
(iv)Cultural anthropology is the study of
human beings in society. It explores
the development of core beliefs, values
and customs that individuals inherit
from their parents and grandparents,
which influence their purchase and
consumption behavior. It also studies
sub-cultures and helps compare
consumers of different nationalities
and cultures.
(v) Economics: An important aspect of the
study of economics is the study of how
consumers spend their funds, how they
evaluate alternatives and how they
make decisions to get maximum
satisfaction from their purchases.
Despite the fact that consumer behavior as a field
of study is relatively of recent origin, it has grown
enormously, has become a full-blown discipline of
its own and is used in the study of most
programmes of marketing study.
The marketing concept was accepted and adopted
by a large number of companies in the developed
countries, particularly the United States and this
provided an impetus to study the consumer
behavior. Companies had to engage in extensive
marketing research to identify unsatisfied
consumer needs. In this process, marketers learnt
that consumers were highly complex as
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1177
individuals and had very different psychological
and social needs, quite apart from their survival
needs. They also discovered that needs and
priorities of different consumer segments differed
significantly. They realized that to design products
and develop suitable marketing strategies that
would satisfy consumer needs, they had to first
study consumers and the consumption related
behavior in depth. In this manner market
segmentation and marketing concept paved the
way for the application of consumer behavior
principles to marketing strategy.
IX: Applications of Consumer Behaviour
in Marketing
Consumer behavior principles are applied in many
areas of marketing as discussed below:
(i) Analyzing market opportunity:
Consumer behavior study helps in
identifying the unfulfilled needs and
wants of consumers. This requires
examining the trends and conditions
operating in the marketplace,
consumers’ lifestyles, income levels
and emerging influences. This may
reveal unsatisfied needs and wants.
The trend towards increasing number
of dual income households and greater
emphasis on convenience and leisure
have led to emerging needs for
household gadgets such as washing
machine, mixer grinder, vacuum
cleaner and childcare centers etc.
Mosquito repellents have been
marketed in response to a genuine and
unfulfilled consumer need.
(ii) Selecting target market: A review of
market opportunities often helps in
identifying distinct consumer segments
with very distinct and unique wants
and needs. Identifying these groups,
learning how they behave and how
they make purchase decisions enables
the marketer to design and market
products or services particularly suited
to their wants and needs. For example,
consumer studies revealed that many
existing and potential shampoo users
did not want to buy shampoo packs
priced at Rs.60 or more and would
rather prefer a low-priced sachet
containing enough quantity for one or
two washes. This finding led
companies to introduce the shampoo
sachet, which became a good seller.
(iii)Marketing mix decisions: Once
unsatisfied needs and wants are
identified, the marketer has to
determine the right mix of product
price, distribution and promotion. Here
too, consumer behavior study is very
helpful in finding answers to many
perplexing questions.
 Product: The marketer designs the
product or service that would satisfy
unfulfilled needs of wants. Further
decisions regarding the product concern
the size, shape and features. The marketer
also has to decide about packaging
important aspects of service, warranties
and accessories etc.Nestle first introduced
Maggi noodles in masala and capsicum
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1178
flavours. Subsequently, keeping in view
the consumer preferences in some regions,
the company introduced garlic, Sambar,
Mixed Vegetables, Dal Atta Noodles, etc.
 Price : The second important component
of marketing mix is price. Marketers must
decide what price to charge for the product
or service. These decisions will influence
the flow of revenue to the company.
Should the marketer charge the same,
higher, or lower price in comparison to
competition? Is the consumer price
sensitive and would a lower price
stimulate sales? Should there be any price
with discounts? Do consumers perceive
lower price indicative of poor quality?
To answer such questions, the marketer must
understand the way the company’s product is
perceived by consumers, the importance of price
as a purchase decision variable and how different
price levels would affect sales. It is only through
consumer behavior study in actual buying
situations that the marketer can hope to find
answers to these important issues.
 Promotion: Promotion is concerned with
marketing communications to consumers.
The more important promotion methods
are advertising, personal selling, sales
promotion, publicity and direct marketing.
The marketer has to decide which method
would be most suitable to effectively reach
the consumers. Should it be advertising
alone or should it be combined with sales
promotion? The company has to know the
target consumers, their location, what
media do they have access to and what are
their media preferences, etc.
In most cases of industrial products, there is very
little or no advertising. Brochures containing
technical specifications are often posted to clients
and the salespeople make follow-up visits.
Consumer products get the maximum share of
advertising. The pharmaceutical industry
exclusively uses personal selling for prescription
drugs. Insurance companies use both advertising
and personal selling.
 Distribution: The next decision relates to
the distribution channel, that is, where and
how to offer products and services for sale.
Should the products be sold through all the
retail outlets of only through selected
ones? Should the marketer use only the
existing outlets, which also sell competing
brands, or should new exclusive outlets
selling only the marketer’s brands are
created? Is the location of retail outlets
important from consumers’ point of view?
Should the company think of direct
marketing? The answers to these questions
are furnished by consumer behavior
research. For example, when Eureka
Forbes introduced its vacuum cleaners
many years ago, few stores knew anything
about this product and most was not
willing to buy it. Consumer awareness
about the product was also low and no
retail shops carried the product. Under
these circumstances, the company decided
to sell the product only through personal
selling, with salespeople calling directly
on the consumer at her/his home. These
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1179
salespeople had enough time to explain
and demonstrate the vacuum cleaner and
convince prospects about its usefulness.
Retail outlets would not have been suitable
for this sales approach. This strategy was
based on understanding of consumer
behavior and yielded good results.
(iv)Use in Social and Non-profits Marketing:
Consumer behavior studies are useful to design
marketing strategies by social, governmental and
not-for-profit organizations to make their
programmes more effective such as family
planning, awareness about AIDS , crime against
women, safe driving, environmental concerns and
others. UNISEF (greeting cards), Red Cross and
CRY etc. make use of consumer behavior
understanding to sell their services and products
and also try to motivate people to support these
Subsequent to the objective analysis of the data
collected we would like to summarise the
Findings of the study and state as under.
1. For analyzing the buying decisions of the
respondents in respect of select FMCG products
viz. chocolate Bar, Milk, Edible oil, Bath Soap &
Shampoo, we had used nine Factors like Price,
Availability, Quality, Taste, and Attractiveness of
the Packages, Quantity, Ingredients Brand and
Influence by Media. The basis of decision making
was measured on 3 point likert scale as Most
Important, Important & Not Important.
a) In respect of Chocolate Bar, Taste was considered
to be the most important factor while Availability
& Media Influence as consider as next important
b) In case of Milk, Quality was considered to be the
most important factor and Ingredients i.e. Fat
content was considered to be the next important
c) In case of Edible Oil, Quality was considered to
be the most important factor, while Taste and
Packing were next important factors.
d) In case of Bath Soap, Availability, Brand and
Media Influence were considered to be most
important factors, while Ingredients was next
important factor.
e) In case of Shampoo, Brand was considered to be
the most important factor while Quality and
Ingredients was considered to be the next
important factors.
2. Regarding purchase preference of the respondents
in respect of the selected FMCG products, for
buying chocolate Bar & Milk, people prefer Small
Shops while for Edible Oil, Bath Soap and
Shampoo people prefer Super Markets due to
wider choice.
3. Regarding Monthly expenses on select FMCG
products, maximum respondents spend Rs. 100/-
to Rs.200/- on purchase of Chocolate Bars, on
Milk it is Rs.500/- to Rs.800/-, on Edible Oil it is
Rs.200/- to Rs.300/-, on shampoo it is Rs.100/- to
Rs.200/-. Hence it is seen the customers spending
on Milk is maximum while Edible oil is next in
the list and Chocolate Bar is the last in the list.
4. Regarding frequency of buying, people buy
Chocolate bar and Milk on daily basis, while
items like Edible oil, Bath soap and Shampoo is
purchased on weekly or monthly basis.
5. Regarding sale promotional tools influencing the
buying decisions of the respondents. It was found
that cash discount, free gifts, gift vouchers and
Dr.Vibhuti, IJSRM volume 2 issue 8 August 2014 [] Page 1180
hampers were highly influential tools. However
the contest/coupons were the least influencing
6. Regarding media influence on the buying decisions,
Television was found to be highly influencing
media the next were Newspapers and Magazines,
surprisingly internet and Hoardings were
considered to be least influencing medias.
Today, the digital revolution of the marketplace
allows much greater customization of products,
services, and promotional messages than older
marketing tools. By doing so, it enables marketers
to build and maintain relationships with
customers-just like the salespersons, grocers, and
jewellers have done for many decades-but on a
much greater and more efficient scale. Digital
technologies also enable marketers to collect and
analyze increasingly complex data on consumer’s
buying patterns and personal characteristics. On
the other hand, the same technologies enable
consumer to find more information about products
and services, including prices, more easily,
efficiently, and, for the most part, from the
comfort of their own homes.
Finally to conclude we can say almost every
FMCG company has been riding the waves of
growth in the last 20 years and it won’t be any
different in the future. The winners however will
innovate more complex but significantly insightful
models and use technology to create flexible
supply chain, innovative products and
communication ideas and satisfy even more
consumer requirements. Together with this, the
government has to create an enabling environment
and tackle number of urban issues for the industry
to truly reach its potential.”
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