(DUE WEEK 11)
FROM 1 TO 2 PAGES
Writing an essay: The purpose of an essay is to present a logical, reasoned argument in response to a
specific question. An effective structure helps your argument to unfold clearly to the reader. You want
your response to be focused and progressive, rather than just a jumble of ideas. It is important that
your essay has a clear introduction, main body and conclusion.
The body of your essay explains, describes and argues your topic. Each main idea that you wrote
will become a separate section within the body of your essay.
The written version of the students’ presentation should include:
– Introduction – Introduce briefly the topic with the main chronological (=when) and
geographical (=where) aspects of it. Then you explain why the topic is relevant to understand
the Contemporary Civilization and/or a specific culture and/or the impact of globalization.
Lastly, ask the question you want to respond with your essay.
– First point – Explain your topic: Despite its obviousness, it is not unnecessary to remind that
the subject given for the essay must first and foremost be understood. Highlighting and
defining the key words constitute an efficient way to proceed. Words have a meaning, which
must be given due consideration so as to avoid going out of the subject.
Explain also its significance for a particular culture/or for the contemporary civilization as a
whole. Then illustrate with one or two examples.
– Second point – Describe your topic: a good description provides information about the
background (historical, economic, cultural, political, etc.) and answer the following
questions: When? Who? How? Why? Etc. Then illustrate with one or two examples.
– Third point – Argue your topic: analyse whether or not the globalization has an impact on the
topic / or analyse the significance of your topic to understand a specific culture / or analyse
your topic in your country. More generally, think of your topic at an international or local
level. You can give your opinion on your topic and explain why you chose it. You can
discuss the positive and negative consequences of globalization on your topic. Then illustrate
with one or two examples.
– A Conclusion: The conclusion brings closure of the topic and sums up your overall ideas while
providing a final perspective on your topic. Your conclusion should consist of three to five
strong sentences. Simply review your main points and provide reinforcement of your thesis.
Key structuring conventions to be used:
– Group similar ideas together rather than jumping around.
– Individual paragraphs should be differentiated typographically ie, by indenting or by
allowing additional line spaces between
– Each paragraph should make only one main point.
– Think of paragraphs as mini-essays. Start with a topic sentence to introduce the main point
of the paragraph; explain that point further; provide evidence for the point;
interpret/analyse the evidence; then summarise the point and indicate how it links into your
– Each paragraph should link to the next using transition words or phrases – such as
‘alternatively;’ ‘consequently;’ ‘as a result’; ‘furthermore…’
– The paragraphs should be placed in a logical and consistent order. Play around with them
until you get the best flow. They should feel progressive rather than list-like.
Whenever you read or research material for your writing, make sure that you include in your notes, or
on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text that you read. These
details should include:
• surname(s) and initial(s) of the author(s);
• the date of publication;
• the title of the text;
• if it is a paper, the title of the journal and volume number;
• if it is a chapter of an edited book, the book’s title and editor(s)
• the publisher and place of publication*;
• the first and last page numbers if it is a journal article or a chapter in an edited book.
2) Online ressources: