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In a normal circulation, pressure is transferred from the heart MUSCLE to the blood each time the heart contracts and then pressure is exerted by the blood as it flows through the blood vessels. The pathophysiology of hypertension follows.

  • Hypertension is a multifactorial
  • When there is excess sodium intake, renal sodium retention occurs, which increases fluid volume resulting in increased preload and increase in contractility.
  • Obesity is also a factor in hypertension because hyperinsulinemia develops and structural hypertrophy results leading to increased peripheral vascular resistance.
  • Genetic alteration also plays a role in the development of hypertension because when there is cell membrane alteration, functional constriction may follow and also results in increased peripheral vascular resistance.